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SPINE LCI dataset: Production of nylon 66 (APME)

Administrative

Technical System

System Boundaries

Flow Data

About Inventory


Administrative
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Finished Y

Date Completed 1999

Copyright APME

Availability Public


Technical System
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Name Production of nylon 66 (APME)

Functional Unit
(see also Functional Unit Explanation)
1 kg of nylon 66 (PA 66)

Process Type Cradle to gate

Site Europe

Sector Materials and components

Owner Europe

Function The information given below comprises all available information in the datasheet from APME, from which this data set is acquired.

Nylon may be produced by the direct polymerisation of amino-acids or by the reaction of a diamine with a dibasic acid.

The essential precursors for nylon 66 are hexamethylene diamine, and adipic acid. When they are reacted they produce hexamethylene diammonium adipate, commonly referred to as nylon salt. For fibre applications, it is important to ensure that the precursors are reacted in equimolar proportions and that the product is highly purified. The formation, extraction and purification of the salt ensures that these conditions are met.

Adipic acid is made by the oxidation of cyclohexane to a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (called KA oil). This mixture is further oxidised with nitric acid to adipic acid. Hexamethylene diamine is made by the reduction of adiponitrile, which is made either by the electronic coupling of acrylonitrile or by the hydrocyanation of butadiene. Adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine are combined in water to make a salt solution. This solution is then passed through a batch or continous reactor in which the water is removed at high temperature and the nylon polymerises. The polymer is expelled from the reactor and granulated. Higher molecular weights are compounding of the the nylon with the modifiers or reinforcements. In some cases, it is possible to compound directly at the reactor without granulating the nylon. The results here refer to nylon66 containing 30% glass fibre.

Operating conditions: As the data are based on information from 14 plants in 6 different European countries, the operating conditions differ. For the electricity taken in from the public supply, the calculations have taken account of the country specific electricity production efficiency.

For raw materials, inputs as listed from APME, have been recorded in this data set. For ’’Fuels & Feedstocks’’, all fueltypes have been included. In addition, ’’Total Energy’’ for ’’Hydro’’, ’’Nuclear’’ and ’’Recovered Energy’’ fueltypes from ’’Primary Fuels & Feedstocks’’ have been included. ’’Recovered Energy’’ has been recorded in this data set as an outflow with positiv sign. For ’’Water Use’’ the total amount has been recorded.



System Boundaries
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Functional Unit Explanation
(see also: Functional Unit)
The polyamids (PA´s) are a group of polymers characterised by a carbon chain with -CO-NH- groups interspersed at regular intervals along it. They are commonly referred to by the generic name nylon and may be produced by the direct polymerisation of amino-acids or by the reaction of a diamine with a dibasic acid.

PA 66 stands for polyamid with two monomers, adipin acid with 6 carbon atoms, and hexamethylene diamine with 6 carbon atoms.

Typical uses for polyamids are: cable ties, lighter bodies, radiator end tanks, air intake manifolds, covers of various types, wheel covers, throttle bodies, clips, fasteners, ski bindings, switchgear, circuit breakers and electrical/electronic components

Nature Boundary ’’The data presented in the result tables are simply a listing of the data for which information is available’’. Especially for air and water emissions, the magnitude of many of the parameters often depends on the degree of monitoring of the parameter, since a company which does not monitor the parameter, may have been estimated it instead.

The categories used to identify the different emissions or groups of emissions are empirical and reflect the ability of the many plants to identify specific emissions. For instance, methane, aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic hydrocarbons have been identified as separate groups, while the more general name hydrocarbons has been reserved for the remainder. However, some companies may not have reported all of the emissions separately. Therefore, the category metals, for example, may include some metals which were specifically identified by other companies and are included under the specific names elsewhere in the tables. Double-counting has been avoided. However, some of the emissions included separately may have contributed to the BOD and COD values.

Generally, the emissions to air and water recorded are those remaining after any on-site air or water treatment.

Time Boundary Data refer to the year 1995. Data for upstream production of fuels and raw materials are probably from the same time, or somewhat older.

Geographical Boundary European average data. Data were supplied from 3 Nylon 66 producers in Germany and France.

For the APME Eco-profiles in general, the coverage of European production varies from 60 to 100% depending upon the product, although this may not be true for some of the intermediates (including toluene). For some intermediates, with the exception of chlorine, sodium hydroxide and electrolytic hydrogen, the average data might not be truly representative of the European average for their production.

The values of some of the parameters reflect the country in which the plants are located. For example, plants in countries where much of the electricity is generated from coal, tend to exhibit higher emissions of sulphur oxides than plants in other countries.

Other Boundaries The following excluded subsystems are explicitly mentioned in the Methodology report:
- External incineration of waste and external recycling. Other external waste treatment is, most likely, also excluded, as concluded by the way solid waste is classified. (On-site waste incineration, on the other hand, is included).
- Energy consumption and emissions caused by operating personnel: consumption of food and car transports to work. Both were considered to be small compared to the totals.
- Capital equipment and buildings, with two exceptions: road transport and oil well operation. In these two cases, construction and maintenance have been included. In most cases, the lifetime of the plants is sufficiently long to allow exclusion of capital equipment and buildings, which typically contribute <0,01% to the totals.

No cut-off criteria for exclusion of minor inputs and outputs are stated. However, in the Metholodogy report, a general recommendation is given that it is important to demonstrate that the contribution of an ancillary material to the overall system is negligible, rather than simply assuming it to be negligible because of its small mass.

European average data. Results are based on data supplied by 3 Nylon 66 production plants in 2 countries: France and Germany. Their total production was 28 000 tonnes.

Allocations In the Methodology report and the different ’’Eco-profiles...’’ reports, the following general co-product allocations are mentioned:

- Extraction of crude oil and natural gas: For the North Sea oil rigs, the flare losses and the own-use data have been spread over all of the saleable products on the basis of their calorific values.
- Refineries: Inputs and outputs have been partitioned over all usable or saleable refinery products on a simple mass basis.
- Crackers: Most likely, this also applies to the products from the crackers: ethylene, propylene, butenes etc.
- Chlorine plant (electrolysis of sodium chloride): Stoichiometric allocation of sodium chloride and some other inputs and outputs has been applied to the three products: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. Care was taken to attribute inputs or outputs only to the products which derive benefit from these inputs or outputs. E.g. sulphuric acid is used as a drying agent for chlorine, therefore, the sulphuric acid input should be attributed to chlorine only. Electricity was partitioned on all products on a simple mass basis.
- Sulphuric acid: 98% sulphuric acid is widely used as a drying agent. Often, the dilute acid leaving the system can be used as a reagent in other reactions. However, the dilute acid cannot simply be subtracted from the input acid. The energy needed to produce concentrated acid by removing water is attributed to the process.
- Hydrochloric acid by-product: In many reactions, chlorine is used as an oxidation or chlorination agent, which inevitably results in the formation of HCl as a by-product. Only the inputs and outputs associated with the production of the stoichiometric amounts of chlorine and hydrogen incorporated into the HCl have been assigned to the HCl.
- On-site steam and electricity: A primary energy equivalent corresponding to the steam energy, assuming 80% efficiency, was subtracted from the total energy input. The remainder was assigned to the electricity.

These allocations are general for data from APME, and only applicable for datasets where the above mentioned processes are included.

Systems Expansions Not applied.


Flow Data

General Activity QMetaData
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Date Conceived 1995
Data Type Derived, mixed
Represents
Method European average data. Results are based on data supplied by 3 Nylon 66 production plants in 2 countries: France and Germany. Their total production was 28 000 tonnes.

Data were averaged over all plants and weighted by the production (mass) from each plant. Vertical averaging has been applied wherever there have been sufficient data from upstram raw material and fuel producers. In vertical averaging, each production sequence (i.e. each plant + its specific suppliers) is calculated separately, and the final result is the average of the results from the individual production sequences weighted by the output from each production sequence (plant). Horizontal averaging has, however, been applied for some processes over which the producers have no control and data from a specific supplier were not available. In these cases, European average data from the other participants or suppliers were used in the calculations.

According to the APME methodology report, the amounts of combusted fuels have been corrected by adding the feedstock (gas and oil) residues used as fuel within the processes, before calculating the CO2 emission.

For fuels and feedstock materials, actual gross calorific values (energy content) have been used in the calculations. Typical values: 45,0 MJ/kg for crude oil, 38,8 MJ/m3 (54,1 MJ/kg) for natural gas, 28,0 MJ/kg for coal, 15,0 MJ/kg for lignite, 9,3 MJ/kg for sulphur.

Data from APMEs website www.lca.apme.org have been downloaded as exe-files. The files are opened and imported into Microsoft Excel. Further, the data from MS Excel is exported to a MS Access database.

Literature Reference
APME, Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe, website:
http://lca.apme.org/reports/htm/alphabetical.htm

Notes For raw materials, inputs as listed from APME, have been recorded in this data set. For ’’Fuels & Feedstocks’’, all fueltypes have been included. In addition, ’’Total Energy’’ for ’’Hydro’’, ’’Nuclear’’ and ’’Recovered Energy’’ fueltypes from ’’Primary Fuels & Feedstocks’’ have been included. ’’Recovered Energy’’ has been recorded in this data set as an outflow with positiv sign. For ’’Water Use’’ the total amount has been recorded.

See Notes in Inventory for a list of how the nomenclature for substances used by APME have been translated into the nomenclature used by CPM (CPM 2000:2)
The Nomenclature for FlowTypes has in some cases been changed:
Old name:
Resources
New name:
Natural resource
Old name:
Waste
New names:
Residue
Old name:
Co-product
New name:
By-product

Although the dataset contains a large number of decimals, which usually implies that there is a great accuracy in the data, we are somewhat questioning about this accuracy.

Flow Table and Specific Meta Data
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QMetaData Direction FlowType Substance Quantity Min Max SDev Unit Environment Geography

Input Natural resource Air 1392776.28248345 mg Air Europe

Input Natural resource Barytes 8.93483563376393 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Bauxite 3838.16656083965 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Bentonite 117.443974639177 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Biomass 7815.3583749712 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Calcium sulphate 11.6832542083494 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Chalk 9.76251286541382E-22 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Clay 14.8278240616897 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Cr 9.13350684153669E-05 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Crude oil 791012.750310036 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Dolomite 10.1697454775279 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Fe 901.488907272007 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Feldspar 1.464806229437E-27 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Ferromanganese 0.748227634307973 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Fluorite 2.05238419790896 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Granite 0.118164363170301 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Gravel 3.03937769182669 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Hard coal 639777.82255687 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Hydro energy 0.8609120056646 MJ Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Lignite 120016.114003957 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Limestone 84386.2603302169 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Metallurgical coal 333.28026550781 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Mg 0 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Natural gas 1487374.79639754 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Ni 6.57627092623652E-02 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Nitrogen 182050.064489366 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Nuclear energy 10.576159939929 MJ Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Olivine 7.72838456831646 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Oxygen 664.963757918166 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Pb 3.32014731692804 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Peat 136.278993400214 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Phosphate 3.27733733268302 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Potassium chloride 1983.46953238211 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Rutile 849.375 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Sand 486.180093364067 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Shale oils 33.0752926638372 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Sodium chloride 72265.1186921039 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Sulphur 14454.5223844584 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Sulphur (bonded) 7211.49071007295 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Talc 0 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Water 702988719.802629 mg Water Europe

Input Natural resource Wood 1229.62334317377 mg Ground Europe

Input Natural resource Zn 24.7382427133584 mg Ground Europe

Output Emission 1,2-Dichloroethane 1.16802672441895E-06 mg Air Europe

Output Emission 1,2-Dichloroethane 2.32123830240252E-09 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Acid as H+ 52.2313018455966 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Al 6.87692120056712 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Aldehydes 0.604405587147232 mg Air Europe

Output Emission As 3.83722086451284E-04 mg Water Europe

Output Emission BOD5 3611.73122964685 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Ca2+ 11.0340552221587 mg Water Europe

Output Emission CFCs 0.250419359776042 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Chloroorganics 0.182075323410716 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Chloroorganics 1.82789802568144 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Cl- 7288.36672536492 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Cl2 0.343647182441859 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Cl2 6.22763471473032E-02 mg Air Europe

Output Emission CN- 2.84367241334574E-02 mg Water Europe

Output Emission CO 3962.02377302629 mg Air Europe

Output Emission CO2 6865046.16984528 mg Air Europe

Output Emission CO32- 129.953909403909 mg Water Europe

Output Emission COD 14923.080130552 mg Water Europe

Output Emission CrO3 1.09895135793891E-04 mg Water Europe

Output Emission CS2 3.20026550783081E-04 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Cu 10.4859024818716 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Dissolved organics 2275.05766134183 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Dissolved solids 6924.51871801595 mg Water Europe

Output Emission F- 8.88633271611218E-03 mg Water Europe

Output Emission F2 2.25746566577521E-04 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Fe 1.61299000521181 mg Water Europe

Output Emission H2 1989.5878581026 mg Air Europe

Output Emission H2S 1.80645768045576 mg Air Europe

Output Emission H2SO4 1.27026518369414E-05 mg Air Europe

Output Emission HCl 294.049775664799 mg Air Europe

Output Emission HCN 4.78999276002486E-27 mg Air Europe

Output Emission HF 14.4398857661296 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Hg 0.204117969473993 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Hg 7.6087232799193E-03 mg Water Europe

Output Emission K+ 61.1909720859114 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Metals 15.7593195733207 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Metals 196.872974540128 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Methane 24018.3163064904 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Mg 0.595680371708426 mg Water Europe

Output Emission N total 164.372199697523 mg Water Europe

Output Emission N2O 736.871359303457 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Na 4154.77323939678 mg Water Europe

Output Emission NH3 685.60199903911 mg Air Europe

Output Emission NH4+ 1941.75114293292 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Ni 10.4775071561512 mg Water Europe

Output Emission NO3- 29776.6750450181 mg Water Europe

Output Emission NOx 26010.7169784759 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Oil 79.0461333194338 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Other organics 21.8473647830802 mg Water Europe

Output Emission PAH 7.826940495941E-28 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Particles 8291.70162335949 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Pb 2.12744242869416E-03 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Pb 2.80107768168889E-04 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Phenol 7.33386002284198 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Phosphate 753.39219349034 mg Water Europe

Output Emission S2- 0.706507901766078 mg Water Europe

Output Emission SO2 25143.1124588561 mg Air Europe

Output Emission SO42- 5570.43668703993 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Suspended solids 1724.57274671094 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Thiols 9.29309527342321E-02 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Vinyl chloride 1.82675361313782E-24 mg Water Europe

Output Emission Vinyl chloride 7.72979929323568E-07 mg Air Europe

Output Emission VOC 46.4197302112404 mg Water Europe

Output Emission VOC 3336.43 mg Air Europe

Output Emission Zn 9.06959648897708E-03 mg Water Europe

Output Product PA 66 1 kg Technosphere Europe

Output Residue Construction 28.6884420899985 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Industrial 7960.41024927123 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Inert chemical 4085.74373485743 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Metals 63.3668474178924 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Mineral 149553.175854626 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Paper 4.97720093134749E-21 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Plastics 253.359166987036 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Recovered energy 4.73513225821983 MJ Technosphere Europe

Output Residue Regulated chemical 2294.06801461885 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Slags & ashes 30685.5875094677 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue To incinerator 317.936387445662 mg Technosphere Europe

Output Residue To recycling 91.2597421288967 mg Technosphere Europe

Output Residue Unspecified 21.7096794323451 mg Ground Europe

Output Residue Wood waste 12.2922464773639 mg Ground Europe


About Inventory
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Publication ’’Eco-profiles of the European plastics industry’’, report for nylon 66. ’’Eco-profiles of plastics and related intermediates: Methodology’’, I. Boustead, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment of The Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME), Brussels, 1999. Reports are available at APME´s web site http://lca.apme.org. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Data documented by Caroline Sjöberg and Sofia Haargaard, Volvo Technological Development. Documentation reviewed by: Ann-Christin Pålsson, CPM, Chalmers University of Technology Published in SPINE@CPM: 27 November 2001 ------------------------------------------------------------

Intended User 1. APME member companies
2. L

General Purpose The general purpose of the study was to demonstrate the commitment of APME (Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe) to improve the environmental impact of the processes, from extraction of oil to granulate or polymer compound.

Detailed Purpose Eco-profiles are intended primarily as buiding blocks for use in the construction of complete life cycle analyses.

1. Provide APME member companies with information which will highlight potential areas for improving manufacturing processes,

2. Provide valuable inventory data for downstream users of plastics, such as packaging manufacturers, who will be able to produce their own eco-balance assessments (i.e. LCAs) of individual products.

Objectives and areas of application for the Eco-profiles:
- Plastics waste management studies
- Internal company benchmarking
- Product development. Detailed environmental information to customers of APME members for use in improving the overall environmental performance of products and systems.
- Ensuring that the data are neutral.

The purpose of the 1999 update was to re-issue all of the data sets together using the latest data available and with all of the results forming a consistent data set. Significant technological and commercial changes have occured since 1989-93, the period to which the oldest group of Eco-profile data referred. Also the quality of data reported by the companies has improved since then.

Commissioner APMEAvenue E. van Nieuwenhuyse 4 Box 3 B-1160 Brussels Belgium.

Practitioner Boustead, Ian.

Reviewer

Applicability European average data. Results are based on data supplied by 3 production plants in 2 countries: France and Germany. Their total production was 28 000 tonnes.

The data are calculated on a cradle to gate basis, therefore, nuclear power, coal, limestone etc should be regarded as resources from environment, i.e. no supplier activities should be connected to these flows.

Remember that, in an LCA, two systems could only be compared if they perform equivalent functions. For instance, production of 1 kg of polyethylene should not be compared directly with production of 1 kg of polycarbonate. Only in a specific application, a comparison between the two materials could be meaningful.

It is not reported how large differences there are between different producers with respect to emissions and other environmental impacts. Therefore, it is also not known how well the data could represent production at a specific plant.

About Data European average data for nylon 66 production on a cradle to gate basis, issued by APME (Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe), and produced in association with the independent expert I. Boustead. The companies participating in the project have supplied data on the chemical processes. Data are probably fairly representative for production of nylon 66 in Europe. However, the reliability of the data depends on the quality of the records maintained by the individual companies. Mass and energy balances have been checked, and the details of all calculations were referred back to individual companies for checking before being incorporated into the final averages.

Data for supporting operations and transport have been obtained from other manufacturers and operators as part of an on-going exercise involved in maintaining an LCI database. The quality of data for public electricity production is not described. However, it is stated that information on the production of fuels and energy have been derived from the reports of the International Energy Agency 1996, which contain data for 1995. No other process data have been derived from the literature.

The accuracy of data for materials and energy supplied by companies is considered to be about 5-10%. Wastes and emissions are often measured with less accuracy. Even for a regulated emission, the procedure for measuring and reporting is usually based on sampling rather than continuous monotoring. The accuracy is often unknown.

Vertical averaging has been applied wherever there have been sufficient data from upstream raw material and fuel producers.

In vertical averaging, each production sequence (i.e. each plant + its specific suppliers) is calculated separately, and the final result is the average of the results from the individual production sequences weighted by the output from each production sequence (plant). Horizontal averaging has, however, been applied for some processes over which the producers have no control and data from a specific supplier were not available. In these cases, European average data from the other participants or suppliers were used in the calculations.

For fuels and feedstock materials, actual gross calorific values (energy content) have been used in the calculations. Typical values: 45,0 MJ/kg for crude oil, 38,8 MJ/m3 (54,1 MJ/kg) for natural gas, 28,0 MJ/kg for coal, 15,0 MJ/kg for lignite, 9,3 MJ/kg for sulphur. The following degrees of efficiencies have been used to convert electricity production in nuclear plants and hydro plants, respectively, to primary energy equivalents: 35% for nuclear electricity, 80% for hydro electricity.

According to the APME methodology report, the amounts of combusted fuels have been corrected by adding the feedstock (gas and oil) residues used as fuel within the processes, before calculating the CO2 emission. CO2 emission values have been calculated from the composition of the fuel, assuming complete combustion: CO2 emission = 3,67 x {mass fraction of carbon in fuel}/{calorific value in MJ/kg} (kg/MJ fuel).

Notes The following substance names have been changed from the nomenclature used by APME to adapt to nomenclature according to CPM report 2000:2.

RESOURCES

Old name New name
Barite (Ba(SO4) Barytes
Bauxite (Al2O3*H2O) Bauxite
Chromium (Cr3+, Cr6+) Chromium
Coal, hard unspecified Hard coal
Gravel (unspecified) Gravel
Hydro (primary energy) Hydro energy
Olivin (unspecified) Olivin
Phosphate (as P2O5) Phosphate
Potassium chloid Potassium chloride
Sand (unspecified) Sand
Sulphur (elemental) Sulphur
Wood (unspecified) Wood

EMISSIONS

Old name New name
Aluminium ion Al
Ammonium ion NH4+
Carbon disulfide CS2
Carbonate CO32-
Chlorine Cl2
Chromium oxide CrO3
Copper (Cu+) Cu
Ethane, 1-,2-, chloro 1,2-Dichloroethane
Fluorine (F2) F2
Hydrocyanic HCN
Hydrogen H2
Iron, Fe2+, Fe3+ Fe
Mercaptans Thiols
Metals (unspecified) Metals
Nickel ion (Ni++) Ni
Nitrate (NO3) NO3-
Oils (unspecified) Oil
Organo-Cl Chloroorganics
Other organics VOC
Particulates (unspecified) Particles
Sulfuric acid H2S4
Vinylchloride Vinyl chloride
VOC (hydrocarbons) VOC
VOC (hydrocarbons, oil) VOC
VOC (unspecified origin) m.fl. VOC
Zinc, ion (Zn++) Zn
Ni (Ni++, Ni3+) Ni

SPINE Data Report
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© CPM, Chalmers University of Technology, 2008


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